Anderson, R. Baumann, J. Lapp, J.
Presenting vocabulary | TeachingEnglish | British Council | BBC
Squire, and J. Jensen eds. Beck, I. Bringing words to life.
Robust vocabulary instruction , New York: Guilford Press. Robust vocabulary instruction, 2nd ed. Biemiller, A. Chall, J. Cunningham, A. Graves, M. Taylor, M. Graves, and P.
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Pearson, and R. Barr eds. National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction NIH Publication No. Government Printing Office, pp. Scott, J. Stahl, S. Swanborn, M. Please let us know what questions you have so we can assist. For Technical Support, please call us or submit a software support request. Language rich home with lots of verbal stimulation Wide background experiences Read to at home and at school Read a lot independently Early development of word consciousness Why do some students have a limited, inadequate vocabulary compared to most of their classmates?
How Vocabulary Affects Reading Development From the research, we know that vocabulary supports reading development and increases comprehension. Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Learning How do we close the gap for students who have limited or inadequate vocabularies? According to Michael Graves , effective intentional vocabulary instruction includes: Teaching specific words rich, robust instruction to support understanding of texts containing those words.
Teaching word-learning strategies that students can use independently. Promoting the development of word consciousness and using word play activities to motivate and engage students in learning new words. Research-Supported Vocabulary-Learning Strategies Students need a wide range of independent word-learning strategies.
Student-Friendly Definitions The meaning of a new word should be explained to students rather than just providing a dictionary definition for the word—which may be difficult for students to understand. Explain the meaning using everyday language—language that is accessible and meaningful to the student. Defining Words Within Context Research shows that when words and easy-to-understand explanations are introduced in context, knowledge of those words increases Biemiller and Boote, and word meanings are better learned Stahl and Fairbanks, Using Context Clues Research by Nagy and Scott showed that students use contextual analysis to infer the meaning of a word by looking closely at surrounding text.
Applying the Target Words Applying the target words provides another context for learning word meanings. Analyzing Word Parts The ability to analyze word parts also helps when students are faced with unknown vocabulary.
Semantic Mapping Semantic maps help students develop connections among words and increase learning of vocabulary words Baumann et al. The most common figures of speech are similes, metaphors, and idioms. Take Aim is available in two formats: The individualized format provides differentiated instruction for students working independently. The group format is designed for small group instruction—up to six students. Contact Please let us know what questions you have so we can assist. As Nation points out, developing fluency "overlaps most of all with developing the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing" p.
Fluency partly depends on developing sight vocabulary through extensive reading and studying high frequency vocabulary.
Teacher Wins Prize for Research on Impact of Vocabulary.com on Reading Comprehension
Fluency exercises include timed and paced readings. Also, learners need to be given practice in looking at groups of words rather than each individual word when reading. Teachers can ask learners to practice timed reading on passages that have already been read. In paced readings the teacher determines the time and pushes the learners to read faster. One type of paced reading is the "reading sprint" in which learners read their pleasure reading book for 5 minutes and count the number of pages they have read.
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- Teaching Vocabulary.
Then they try to read the same number of pages while the time they have to read decreases from 5 minutes to 4 to 3 to 2 minutes for each sprint. Guessing from context is a complex and often difficult strategy to carry out successfully.
However, even if one knows these words, Kelly concludes that "unless the context is very constrained, which is a relatively rare occurrence, or unless there is a relationship with a known word identifiable on the basis of form and supported by context, there is little chance of guessing the correct meaning" p.
He also asserts that, because guessing from context fails to direct attention to word form and meaning, relatively little learning occurs. Although this strategy often may not result in gaining a full understanding of word meaning and form, guessing from context may still contribute to vocabulary learning. Just what is and is not learned will partly depend on text difficulty as well as the learners' level.
In particular, more proficient learners using texts that are not overly difficult can be expected to use this strategy more effectively than low proficiency learners. It should also be remembered that learning vocabulary also includes learning about collocations, associations, and related grammatical patterns as well as meaning. Therefore, if regularly practiced, this strategy may contribute to deeper word knowledge for advanced learners as long as they pay attention to the word and its context.
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